Anybody who enjoys a good cocktail will have come across the word bitters every so often. And if you’re a gin drinker, you need to know what they are.
Basically, these are small bottles of highly alcoholic flavouring agents, generally infused with herbs and botanicals. Like many things, they started off life as a medicinal potion. In fact, they have a medicinal history that has seen them prescribed as cures for everything from stomach aches to hangovers. They are also often the mystery ingredient in your gin cocktail.
But what are they and why should we care?
Back to basics
At their most basic, bitters are simply neutral spirits infused with aromatics such as spices, seeds, fruits, tree bark etc. Some of the more traditional flavours include cassia root, orange peel, cinchona bark and cascarilla. Generally, they contain a potent mixture of water, alcohol and herbs and they come in all strengths, ranging from the strong to the very strong.
As a mark of respect for their potency, they generally come in tiny bottles and are added to cocktails in small drops. This is due to their intense flavour and industrial strength. The most commonly referenced brand of bitters is Angostura.
But what do these tiny drops of flavour do?
Smoothing out the edges
Cocktails often contain a delicate balance of flavours, generally in the sweet and sour range. But by adding an additional primary taste bartenders can help to smooth out a cocktail neutralising any sharp or sweet edges and adding a little balance to the mix. This complexity adds an extra layer of character to drinks and can subtly change your entire drinking experience.
So where did this all begin?
Thousands of years ago, the Egyptians were ahead of their time. While they were constructing their mind-boggling pyramids, they also began to experiment with medicinal herbs. Interestingly, they were also partial to a drop of wine. They started to infuse their wine with those bitter herbal potions. This not only changed the flavour profile of the wine, but also claimed apparent medicinal benefits.
Fast forward to the Middle Ages and the advent of organised distilling. Preparations with deeper combinations of flavours started to appear, seemingly influenced by these ancient medicinal practices.
By the 19th century, the Americans started to add bitters to Canary wine as a preventative medicine. And then the cocktail arrived.
Bitters become brands
That was when things started to make real progress. Commercial distillers began to produce their own bitters – the most famous of which is Angostura (named after a Bolivian town of the same name). As the years moved on and tastes became increasingly accustomed to these new flavours, other brands began to appear including Peychaud’s from New Orleans. This brand is now most generally associated with the Sazerac cocktail.
You may also be familiar with bitters appearing in classic Pink Gin or Old Fashioned recipes. This is where Angostura continues to make its mark.
During the latter half of the 19th century, orange bitters began to make their presence felt and began to appear in more and more cocktail recipes. And then, in 1862, legendary bartender Jerry Thomas championed them in his book “How to mix drinks or The Bon Vivant’s Companion”.
This was the inflection point that brought them firmly into the territory of a mainstream cocktail ingredient.
The age of the cocktail
Bitters have added subtle flavour and aroma to drinks for centuries. They are often drunk neat, as a digestif, in both Europe and America. But with the resurging interest in craft gins and bespoke cocktails, they are continuing to add an extra layer of complexity.
You will increasingly see them appearing in a range of cocktail recipes (not least in the common and garden G&T!).
And bitters have another excellent property which should not be ignored: they make a rather unpleasant tasting but highly effective hangover cure.
These days there are a plethora of new brands on the market and more and more people are experimenting with making their own craft versions at home.
Here are some of the most well known bitters, just in case you fancy mixing up a proper pink gin (especially if you’re expecting a giant hangover any time soon!).
Some of the most popular bitters brands (paid links)
- Angostura Bitters (Pink Gin/Old Fashioned)
- Peychaud’s Bitters (Sazerac)
- Boker’s Bitters (Manhattan/Martinez)
- Bittermens Hopped Grapefruit Bitters (Gimlet/G&T)
- Regan’s Orange Bitters (Manhattan/Old Fashioned)
Written by Steve (with a little help from Ruddles, the gin dog!)
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